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Occupations, Page 2

 Occupations:  A basic primer of archaic terms
 
Through the years, the english language has changed radically.  The names of occupations have varied with these changes and can be a source of confusion and distress for researchers.  This is a listing of the more common occupationally related names used between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.

  • ACATER: one who supplied food provisions, such as a ships chandler
  • ACCIPITRARY a falconer or keeper and tamer of hawks
  • ACCOMPANT: an accountant
  • ACCOUCHEUR / ACCOUCHEUS: one who assisted women in childbirth
  • ACCOUTREMENT MAKER / ACCOUTRE: a supplier of military accessories
  • ACRE-MAN / ACKERMAN: a man who ploughed or cultivated the land
  • ACTUARY: a statistician who computed insurance risks and premiums
  • AGENT: a person who acted on behalf of a company or another person
  • AGRICULTURIST: a person involved with land cultivation or animal husbandry
  • ALABASTERER: one who worked with alabaster
  • ALCHEMIST: a medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn base metals into gold
  • ALE DRAPER: an ale-house keeper
  • ALE TASTER: an officer appointed in every court precinct to inspect ale, beer, and bread, and examine the quality and quantity within his precincts
  • ALE TUNNER: a person employed by the brewery to fill ale casks called "tuns" with ale
  • ALEWIFE a woman who kept an alehouse or tavern
  • ALL SPICE: grocer
  • ALMONER: an officer who distributed charity or alms; by ancient law every monastery was to disperse a tenth of its income in alms to the poor, and all bishops were obliged to keep an almoner
  • ALMSMAN: a person supported by charity or one who lived on alms
  • ALNAGER: official who examined the quality of woolen goods and stamped them with the town seal of approval
  • AMANUENSIS: one who is employed to take dictation or to copy manuscript
  • AMBER CUTTER: a person who cut ambergris
  • ANCHOR SMITH: one who made anchors
  • ANCHORESS: a female hermit or religious recluse
  • ANCHORITE: a person who has retired into seclusion for religious reasons
  • ANKLE BEATER: a young person who helped to drive the cattle to market
  • ANNATTO MAKER: a person who worked in the manufacture of dyes for paint or printing
  • ANTIGROPELOS MAKER: a person who made waterproof leggings
  • ANVIL SMITH: a person who made anvils and hammers for blacksmiths
  • APIARIANA: beekeeper
  • APOTHECARY: a druggist
  • APPRENTICE: one who was bound to a skilled worker for a specified time to learn a trade
  • APRONMAN: [obsolete] a laboring man; a mechanic
  • AQUAVITA SELLER: liquor seller
  • ARBITER: a witness or judge
  • ARCHER: a person skilled in using a bow and arrow
  • ARCHIATOR: a physician
  • ARCHIVIST: one who kept historical records
  • ARGOLET: a mounted bowman
  • ARKWRIGHT: a skilled craftsman who produced "arks" (wooden chests)
  • ARMIGER: one entitled to bear arms, such as knight or esquire
  • ARMOURER: one who made suits or plates of armor for buildings or ships
  • ARPENTEUR: a land-surveyor
  • ARTIFICER: a blacksmith; one who made fuses, grenades, shells, etc.
  • ARTISAN: a skilled tradesman
  • ASHMAN: a dustman
  • ASSAY MASTER: one who determined the amount of gold or silver to go in coins
  • ASSAYER: one who examined characteristics (weight, measure or quality) to determine a value
  • AUGER MAKER: one who made the carpenters augers for boring holes in wood
  • AULNAGER: See Alnager
  • AURIFABER / AURIFEX: a goldsmith
  • AVENATOR: a hay and forage merchant
  • AVOWRY: term for the lord of the manor
  • AXLE TREE MAKER / AXLE TREE TURNER: one who made axles for coaches and wagons
  • BACKMAKER: a person who made "backs", vats, tubs, a Cooper
  • BACKSTER: originally, a female baker; later, a baker of either sex
  • BACK'US BOY: kitchen servant
  • BADGER: a licensed pauper who wore a badge with the letter "P" on it and could only work in a defined area; a corn miller or dealer; an itinerant food trader
  • BADGY FIDDLER: a boy trumpeter in the military
  • BAGMAN: a traveling salesman; one who showed samples and solicits order for a manufacturer
  • BAGNIOKEEPER: a person in charge of a bath house or brothel
  • BAILIE: bailiff
  • BAILIFF: [1] a court attendant entrusted with duties such as the maintenance of order in a courtroom during a trial; [2] an official who assisted a British sheriff and who had the power to execute writs, processes, and arrests; [3] (chiefly British) an overseer of an estate; a steward
  • BALISTER: a cross-bowman
  • BAIRMAN / BAREMAN: pauper, beggar
  • BALANCER: a person employed in the coal mines to operate the "balance" which is a slope with a pulley at the top where empty coal tubs pulled full tubs up the slope
  • BALER: one who bales of hay
  • BALLAD MONGER: one who sold printed ballads on the street
  • BALLAST HEAVER: a person who loaded ballast into the hold of empty ships
  • BALLER UP: a person who assisted the potter by measuring out the balls of clay
  • BAND FILER: a metal worker in the gun making industry
  • BANDSTER: [obsolete] one who bound sheaves after reapers during a harvest
  • BANG BEGGAR: [slang] a constable who carried a strong staff
  • BANKER: a person who dug trenches and ditches to allow drainage of the land, placing the surplus earth in banks around the edge
  • BANKS MAN: [1] an overseer at a coal mine; [2] a bank manager
  • BANQUETER: a broker or banker
  • BARBER-CHIRURGEON - a person who practiced surgery and was a barber; in the 18th century an Act was passed that limited Barbers to hair-cutting, shaving, dentistry and blood letting
  • BARD: a poet or minstrel
  • BARGEMAN: one who worked on or owned and operated a barge
  • BARKEEPER: a toll keeper
  • BARKER: [obsolete] a tanner
  • BARKMAN: a bargeman
  • BARM BREWER: a person who made yeast
  • BARREL FILER: a person employed in the gun manufacturing industry
  • BARTONER / BARTON: a person in charge of the monastic farm
  • BASIL WORKER: a person who worked with sheep and goat skins

 

  • BASKETMAN: person who made baskets and furniture from wicker; one employed to empty the basket of coal being offloaded from the colliers into the barges
  • BATMAN: an officer's servant in the army
  • BATTLEDORE MAKER: one who made the beaters used on clothes, carpets, etc. to remove the dust
  • BAWD: a procurer or procuress for a house of prostitution
  • BAXTER: a baker
  • BAYWEAVER: one who wove bay, a fine woolen fabric also known as baize
  • BEADLE: a town crier or warrant officer; a lowly parish officer appointed to keep order in church, punish petty offenders, and act as a servant or messenger of the parish
  • BEAMSTER: the man who worked at the beam in a tannery
  • BEAVER: one who made felt used in hat making
  • BEDMAN: a sexton
  • BEDDER: [1] an upholsterer; [2] one who took care of the breeding of cattle; [3] a bed-maker
  • BEDWEAVER: a person who made the webbing for bed frames, also a person who wove quilts
  • BEESKEPMAKER: beehive maker
  • BEEKEEPER / BEEMASTER: a person who raised and kept bees for their honey
  • BELL FOUNDER: one who made bells
  • BELL HANGER: the person who installed bells in churches
  • BELLMAN: a town crier employed to make public announcements in the streets
  • BELL RINGER: one in charge of ringing the town's church bells
  • BELLOWFARMER: person responsible for the care and maintenance of the church organ
  • BELLOWS MAKER: a person who made bellows used for organs or blacksmiths' fires
  • BELLY BUILDER: a person who built and fitted the interiors of pianos
  • BENDER: a person who cut leather
  • BERNER: [obsolete] a man in charge of a pack of hounds
  • BESOM MAKER: [obsolete] one who made brooms
  • BIBLIOTHECARY: a librarian
  • BIDDY: female servant usually of Irish stock
  • BID-STAND: [obsolete] one who bade travelers to "stand and deliver"; a highwayman or robber
  • BILL POSTER: a person who put up notices, signs and advertisements
  • BINDER: one who bound items such as books
  • BIRD BOY: a person employed to scare away birds from crops
  • BIRD CATCHER; a person who caught birds for selling
  • BIRDS NEST SELLER: a person who sold birds nest collected from the wild complete with eggs; these were then hatched by domestic birds and sold as pets
  • BLACKING MAKER: a person who made polish for shoes
  • BLACK BORDERER: a person who made black edged stationery for funerals
  • BLADESMITH: sword maker or knife maker
  • BLEMMERE: a plumber
  • BLOCKCUTTER / BLOCKER: a person who made wooden blocks used in the hat trade; a person who laid down the blocks on which a ships keel was laid
  • BLOCK MAKER: a person who engraved the blocks used in the printing trade
  • BLOCK PRINTER: a printer who used wooden blocks for printing
  • BLOODLETTER / BLOODMAN: the person who used leeches for letting blood
  • BLOOMER: a person who produced iron from ore
  • BLOWER: [1] a glass blower; [2] a person who operated a "blowing machine" used to clean and separate fibers in the textile trade; [3] a person who operated the bellows at a blacksmiths
  • BLUESTOCKING female writer
  • BLUFFER: a landlord
  • BOARDING OFFICER: one who inspected ships before entering port
  • BOARDWRIGHT: a carpenter
  • BOATMAN: a person who worked on a boat, predominately on rivers and canals; boat repairer
  • BOATSWAIN: an officer in charge of the sails and rigging
  • BOBBER: [1] a person who polished metals; [2] person who helped to unload fishing boats
  • BOCHER: [obsolete] butcher
  • BODEYS MAKER / BODY MAKER: a person who made bodices for womens garments
  • BODGER: a craftsman who made wooden chair legs and the spars
  • BOILERMAKER: one who worked with metal in any industrial setting
  • BOILER PLATER: a person who made rolled iron plate used to make boilers for steam engines
  • BOLTER: a person who sifted meal
  • BONDAGER: a female worker on a farm who was bonded
  • BONDMAN: a person bonded to a master for the purpose of learning a skill or trade
  • BONE BUTTON TURNER: a person who made buttons using a lathe
  • BONE LACE MAKER: one who made pillow lace
  • BONE PICKER: See Rag Picker
  • BONESETTER: a person who set broken bones
  • BONIFACE: an innkeeper
  • BOOK GUILDER: one who decorated books with gold leaf
  • BOONMASTER: a surveyor of roads with the responsibilities of maintaining and repairing the road
  • BOOT-CATCHER: the person at an inn whose business was to pull off boots
  • BOOTBINDER: one employed to operate the machines which bound footwear
  • BOOT CLOSER: one who worked in the shoe trade stitching together all the parts of a shoe upper
  • BOOTHMAN: a corn merchant
  • BORLERA: a person who made cheap coarse clothing
  • BOTCHER: a cobbler; a tailor; an unskilled laborer
  • BOTTILER / BOTTLER: a person who made leather containers for holding liquids such as wine flasks or water bottles
  • BOTTLE BOY: a pharmacist's assistant
  • BOWLER: [1] a person who made bowls and dishes; [2] one who made the rounded part of spoons before casting
  • BOWLMAN: a dealer in crockery
  • BOWYER: a person in the bow trader; an archer
  • BRABENER: a weaver
  • BRACHYGRAPHER: a person who wrote short hand
  • BRAKEMAN / BRAKESMAN: a person who operated the winch at the pit head; a person who operated the braking mechanism on trains and trams
  • BRASIATOR: a brewer of ale
  • BRASS FINISHER: one who polished brass goods
  • BRASS CUTTER: a person who made copperplate engravings
  • BRASS FOUNDER: one who cast brass
  • BRAYER: a person who ground things up in a mortar
  • BRAZIER: one who works in brass
  • BREACH MAKER: a person who made the breach for guns
  • BREWSTER: a female brewer
  • BRICKBURNER / BRICKMAKER: a person who used a kiln to make bricks
  • BRICKMAN / BREAKMAN: a bricklayer

         BRIDEWELL KEEPER: the person in charge of a lock-up or jail

  • BRIDGEMAN: toll keeper at bridges
  • BRIGHTSMITH: tinsmith
  • BROADCLOTH WEAVER: a person who operated a wide loom
  • BROAD COOPER: a person employed as a go-between for the brewery and the innkeepers
  • BROGGER: a wool merchant
  • BROOM DASHER: a dealer in brooms
  • BROOM SQUIRE: one who made brooms from birch
  • BROWDERER / BROIDERER: an embroiderer
  • BROWNSMITH: a person who worked with copper or brass
  • BUCK WASHER: a laundress
  • BUCKLER / BUCKLESMITH: a person who made buckles
  • BUCKLE TONGUE MAKER: a person who made the metal points that go in the holes of a belt
  • BULLWHACKER: a bullock or oxen driver
  • BUMBOAT MAN: one who met ships at anchor, with goods for passengers and crew to purchase
  • BUNTER: a rag and bone woman
  • BURGONMASTER: mayor
  • BURLER: one who dresses or readies cloth for sale by removing flaws, knots, or imperfections
  • BURMAIDEN: [also BOWERMAIDEN] - a chambermaid or lady in waiting
  • BURYEMAN: a grave digger
  • BUSHELER: a tailor's assistant
  • BUSKER: [obsolete] a hair dresser
  • BUSS MAKER: a maker of guns
  • BUTNER: button maker
  • BUTTON BURNISHER: one who polished buttons
  • CABBIE: driver of a small horse drawn passenger vehicle
  • CAD: a person employed to feed and water horses at coach stops
  • CADDY BUTCHER: horse meat butcher
  • CADGER: a beggar
  • CAINER: a person who made walking sticks
  • CALCINER: a person who burnt bones to make powdered lime
  • CALENDER: a person who listed documents
  • CALKER: an astrologer or magician
  • CAMBIST: a banker or one who dealt in notes and bills
  • CAMBRIC MAKER: a person who made a fine linen or cotton fabric called cambric
  • CAMERIST: a lady's maid
  • CANDLE MAKER / CANDLER: one who made and sold candles
  • CANDY MAN: [1] an itinerant candy salesman; [2] a bailiff or process server
  • CANER: a person who made the seats for chairs out of woven cane
  • CANTER: a beggar or vagrant
  • CANTING CALLER: an auctioneer
  • CANVASER: a person who made canvas
  • CAPE MERCHANT: the head merchant in a factory
  • CAPER: a cap maker
  • CAPTAIN: [1] a person in charge of a ship or a group of soldiers; [2] an overseer
  • CARDER: one who carded wool
  • CARDMAKER: [1] A person who made the handheld implement used for carding wool and cotton; [2] the maker of playing cards
  • CARNIFEX: an executioner or butcher
  • CARTER: a wagoner, stable headman, or charioteer
  • CARTOGRAPHER: a map maker
  • CARTOMANCER: a fortune teller who used cards
  • CART WHEELER: one who made cart wheels
  • CARTWRIGHT: one who made carts or wagons
  • CASTER / CASTOR: maker of small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar, etc.
  • CASTRATOR: [also GELDER] one who castrated farm animals
  • CATTLE JOBBER: a person who bought and sold cattle
  • CAULKER: a person who made boats watertight by caulking the seams
  • CELLARMAN: one who looked after the beer, wines and spirits in public houses or the warehouse
  • CHAFFERER: a dealer in chaff
  • CHAISE MAKER: wicker cart maker
  • CHALONER: blanket maker
  • CHAMBERLAIN: a steward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household
  • CHAMBERMAID: a female servant who attended to the bedrooms in a house or inn
  • CHAMBERMASTER: a shoemaker who worked in his own home
  • CHANDLER: originally, one who made or sold candles; a retail dealer in provisions, groceries, etc.
  • CHANTY MAN: the sailor who led the singing on board ship
  • CHAPELER: a person who made and sold hats
  • CHAPMAN: an itinerant peddler or one who kept a booth in a marketplace
  • CHARCOAL BURNER: a person who made charcoal usually in the woods where the trees were cut
  • CHARWOMAN: a cleaning woman hired by the day
  • CHASER: engraver
  • CHEESEMAN / CHEESE MONGER: cheese dealer
  • CHIFFONNIER: wig maker
  • CHRONOLOGIST: one who recorded official events of historical importance
  • CLICKER: a merchant's servant who would stand at the door and invite customers into the store; a foreman in a shoemaker's shop
  • CLOD-HOPPER: a ploughman or agriculture laborer
  • CLOGGER: one who made wooden shoes for sale
  • CLOTHIER / CLOTHESMAN: a person who made or sold clothes
  • CLOWER: a person who made nails
  • COACHMAN: a person who drove any coach
  • COAL HEAVER: one who unloaded coal from ships
  • COALMAN: a person who sold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house
  • COALY: a coal heaver
  • COBBLER: a shoemaker
  • COCKFEEDER: a person who looked after fighting cocks
  • CODMAN: a fish seller
  • COGMEN: men who bought and sold a coarse cloth called cogware
  • COILLOR: [obsolete] a collector
  • COISTSELL: a groom in charge of the care of a knight's horse
  • COLLAR MAKER: a person who made collars
  • COLLIER: a coal miner or coal merchant
  • COLPORTEUR: an itinerant book salesman, most often one employed by a society to travel about and sell or distribute Bibles and religious writings
  • CONEY CATCHER: a rabbit catcher
  • CONFECTIONERY: a maker of sweets; sometimes, one who made medicines or poisons
  • CONNOR: one who tested, examined, or inspected
  • COOPER: one who made or repaired wooden casks, kegs or tubs
  • COPEMAN - [1] a dishonest merchant, especially in horses; [2] a receiver of stolen goods
  • COPER: a horse dealer
  • COPPERSMITH: one who worked with copper
  • CORDER: a colonial official whose duty was to verify cords of wood before sale
  • CORDWAINER: a shoemaker or worker of leather
  • CORK CUTTER: one who worked with cork
  • CORN CUTTER: a podiatrist
  • COSTERMONGER: originally, a seller of apples; a fruit seller, especially in the open street
  • COTELER / COTYLER: one who made and repaired knives
  • COUPER: one who bartered, dealt, or bought and sold
  • COURANTEER: a journalist, reporter, or newspaper publisher
  • COURTIER: the owner and driver of a horse and cart known as a court
  • COWHERD: a cow keeper; one who tended cows
  • COWPER: one who made wooden items
  • CRACKER BOY - a boy employed to clean and sort slate and other impurities from the coal crushed by the crackers (machines that crush anthracite coal)
  • CRAFTIMAN: a craftsman
  • CRAMER: a peddler who sold books in the marketplace; a hawker
  • CRATE MAN: a person who sold earthenware door to door
  • CRIMPET MAKER: a person who baked crumpets
  • CROCKER: one who made crockery; potter
  • CROFTER: a tenant who worked a small piece of ground, having another vocation, such as fishing
  • CROOKMAKER: a person who made shepherd's crooks and walking sticks
  • CROPPER: a tenant who worked a piece of ground and got a portion of the crop in payment
  • CROWNER: a coroner
  • CURER: one who cured tobacco
  • CURRIER: a craftsman who treated animal skins with oil or grease
  • CUTLER: one who made, dealt, and sharpened knives, scissors, and other cutting instruments
  • DAIRYMAN: a man who rented, owned, or managed a dairy and made his living by selling dairy products
  • DAMSTER: in logging operations, one who supervised the building of a dam
  • DAY LABORER: a man who worked on a hire-by-the-day basis
  • DECOYMAN: a person employed to decoy the wild fowl, animals, etc. into a trap or within shooting range
  • DELVER: ditch digger
  • DIKER: one who built dikes or dug ditches or trenches
  • DISHER / DISH THROWER: a person who made bowls and dishes
  • DISH TURNER: one who made wooden bowls or dishes
  • DOCKER: dock worker who loads and unloads cargo
  • DOCK MASTER: a person in charge of a dockyard
  • DOG BREAKER: dog trainer
  • DOG LEECH: a veterinarian
  • DOMESMAN: a judge
  • DOOR-KEEPER: a janitor, porter, or guard
  • DOWSER: a person who claimed to be able to find water using a forked stick or dowsing stick
  • DRAINER: a person who made drains
  • DRAPER: originally, a maker of woolen cloth, later a dealer in cloths of all kinds
  • DRAWER: one who drew and served liquor for tavern customers

 

  • DRAYMAN: one who drove a cart carrying heavy loads, often used in connection with a brewery
  • DRESSER: [1] one who dressed another (a tire woman); [2] surgeon's assistant in a hospital
  • DRESSMAKER: clothing maker
  • DRIVER: the overseer of a group of slaves
  • DROVER: a driver of sheep and cattle
  • DRYSALTER - one who dealt in salted or dried meats, pickles, sauces, chemical, and dyes
  • DUFFER: a peddler or hawker who sold cheap or trashy goods
  • DUSTMAN: a janitor or garbage man
  • DYER: one who dyed material
  • EARER: a ploughman
  • EGGLER: an egg or poultry dealer
  • ELYMAKER: oil maker
  • EMBOSSER: a person who molded or carved designs that were raised above the surface of the material
  • EMPRESARIO: a man who performed a specific deed, such a importing a certain number of settlers, in return for land grants and power; land broker, settlement scheme promoter, showman
  • EMPTOR: a buyer
  • ENGRAVER / ETCHER: one who cut or carved designs or lettering in metal or stone
  • ENUMERATOR: census taker
  • EREMITE: hermit
  • ESSENCE PEDDLER: one who sold medicines, flavorings, elixirs, etc.
  • EXCISEMAN: a government official who collected excises (taxes)
  • EYER: a person who made eyes in needles used for sewing; also called a Holer
  • FACTOR: a commissioned agent; one who sold goods for another in his own name and received a commission
  • FAGETTER: a person who made up faggots into bundles; seller of firewood
  • FANNER: one who winnowed (separated the chaff from the grain by means of air movement) grain with a fan
  • FARRIER: a blacksmith or one who shoes horses
  • FASHIONER: one who fashioned or formed anything, especially clothing
  • FEATHER-BEATER: one who cleaned feathers
  • FEATHER-DRESSER: a person who cleaned and prepared feathers for sale
  • FEATHERMAN: a dealer in feathers and plumes
  • FELLER: a woodcutter
  • FELLMONGER: one who removed hair or wool from hides in preparation for leather making; a dealer in animal skins and hides, especially sheepskin
  • FELTER: a worker in the hat making industry
  • FENCE VIEWER: a person legally appointed to inspect and report on the condition of fences.
  • FERRER: a smith who worked in iron
  • FISH FAG: a woman who sold fish
  • FLAX DRESSER: one who prepared flax prior to spinning
  • FLESHER: [1] a butcher; [2] one who worked in a tannery
  • FLESHMONGER: one who dealt in flesh; a pimp
  • FLETCHER: a maker of and dealer in bows and arrows
  • FLOATER: a vagrant
  • FLUSHERMAN: a person who cleaned out water mains
  • FLYING STATIONER: a street broadsheet seller
  • FOGGER: [1] a peddler who carried small wares from village to village; [2] a low-class lawyer; [3] a middleman in the nail and chain trade; [4] an agricultural laborer who fed cattle
  • FOOT-BOY: a servant or attendant in livery
  • FOOT-MAIDEN: a female attendant
  • FOOTMAN: a servant who would run errands among his other duties
  • FORGER: blacksmith
  • FORESTALLER: one who bought goods before they come to market in order to raise the price
  • FOSSETMAKER: a person who made faucets for ale-casks
  • FRAME SPINNER: a worker on a loom
  • FRINGEMAKER: one who made fringes or ornamental borders of cloth
  • FRIPPERER: one who bought and sold old clothes
  • FRISEUR: a hair dresser
  • FRUITERER: a person who bought and sold fruit
  • FRUITESTERE: a female fruit seller
  • FULKER: a pawnbroker or money lender
  • FULLER: a person who fulled (processed) cloth by increasing the weight and bulk of fabric by shrinking, beating, or pressing it
  • FURBISHER: a person who polished armor
  • FURNER: a baker; one in charge of the ovens
  • FURRIER: one who bought, sold, and/or made furs
  • FUSTIAN WEAVER: a maker of corduroy
  • GAFFER: a headman or foreman of a work gang
  • GANGREL: a vagrant or roving beggar
  • GANNEKER: an alehouse keeper
  • GAOLER: a jailer
  • GARCION: a serving man or groom, usually a young man or boy
  • GATER: a watchman
  • GATWARD: a goat keeper
  • GAUNTER: a glover
  • GELDER: castrator of animals, especially horses
  • GILDER: one whose occupation was to overlay an item with gold leaf
  • GINOUR: an engineer
  • GIRDLER: one who made girdles
  • GLAZIER: a glasscutter; a person who glazed pottery, paper, etc.
  • GOLDSMITH: a banker; one who dealt in articles made of gold; a craftsman who makes vessels and ornaments of gold
  • GOOSE HERD: one who herded geese
  • GOOSE HERDER: an itinerant tailor
  • GRACE WIFE: a midwife
  • GRAFFER: a notary or scrivener
  • GRAINER: one who produced artificial grain in wood
  • GRANGER: a farmer, bailiff, or steward of a farm
  • GRAVER: one who carved or engraved letters or figures in stone
  • GRAZIER: one who pastured and raised cattle for market
  • GREEN GROCER: a retailer of greens
  • GREENSMITH: worker in copper or latten
  • GRINDER: one who operated a grinding machine in any of several trades
  • GUMMER: a person who improved old saws by deepening the cuts
  • HABERDASHER: one who sold men's furnishings, i.e. hats, shirts, handkerchiefs, gloves, etc.
  • HACKNER: one who made or used hoes, mattocks, etc.
  • HACKNEY MAN: one who rented horses and carriages
  • HAIRWEAVER: weaver of cloth composed wholly or partly of horsehair
  • HAND WOMAN: a midwife; a female attendant
  • HARLOT: [1] loose woman; [2] vagabond, beggar, rogue; [3] male servant, attendant or menial
  • HARPER: a performer on the harp
  • HATCHELER: one who cleaned or dressed flax
  • HAWKER: an itinerant peddler or huckster
  • HAYMONGER: a dealer in hay
  • HAYWARD: an officer formerly charged with the repair of cattle fences and the retention of cattle in the town common.
  • HEDGER: one who planted or trimmed hedges
  • HEELMAKER: one who made shoe heels
  • HENCHMAN: a horseman or groom
  • HEWER: a miner who cut coal, stone; a face worker in a mine
  • HIGGER: a person who peddled merchandise
  • HIGHWAYMAN: a robber who worked the public roads
  • HIND a farm laborer, household or domestic servant
  • HOBBLER: [1] a soldier on horseback; [2] one who towed a boat with a rope along a river bank
  • HOD: a bricklayer's laborer
  • HODMAN: a mason's helper
  • HOGGARD: a pig drover
  • HOOPER: a cooper; one who put the hoops on casks or tubs
  • HORNER: a worker in horn making spoons, combs, or musical horns
  • HORSE-CAPPER: a dealer in worthless horses
  • HORSE COPER: a horse dealer or breeder
  • HORSE COURSER: a man who keeps race horses
  • HORSE LEECH: veterinarian
  • HOSIER: a retailer of stockings, socks, gloves, nightcaps, etc.
  • HOSTLER: [1] a stableman or groom; [2] one who serviced railroad engines
  • HOSTELER: one who received and lodged guests
  • HOUSE JOINER: one who built house frames
  • HOUSEWRIGHT: a carpenter or house builder
  • HOYMAN: a person who engaged in the carriage of goods and passengers by water
  • HUCKSTER: a peddler or salesman
  • HUSBANDMAN: farmer
  • ICEMAN: an ice dealer; one who delivered ice to customers
  • INFIRMARIAN: a person in charge of an infirmary
  • INNHOLDER: an innkeeper
  • INTELLIGENCER: a spy
  • INTENDANT: a director of a public or government business
  • INTERFACTOR: a murderer
  • IRONMASTER: the owner or manager of an iron foundry
  • IRONMONGER: a dealer in iron and hardware
  • IRON SMITH: blacksmith; worker in iron
  • IVORY WORKER: one who made such things as piano keys, combs, billiard balls, and buttons
  • JACK: a young male assistant, sailor, or lumberjack
  • JACKSMITH: a maker of lifting machinery
  • JAGGER: a carrier, carter, peddler or hawker; in mining, a man who carried ore on a pack-horse from a mine to the smelter; a boy who had charge of the jags or train or trucks in a coal mine